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Botanical Name:Carissa carandas
Species: C. carandus
Synonym: Carissa congesta.
Commonly known as: Bengal currant, Christ’s thorn, corinda tree, karanda
• Bengali: karamcha
• Gujarati: kararmarda
• Hindi: balalak, dindimi, karaunda, sushena
• Kannada: karekayi
• Malayalam: karakka
• Marathi: karanda, karavanda
• Oriya: sushena
• Sanskrit: karamarda, sushena
• Tamil: kalakkay, perungala
• Telugu: kalive
Common Hindi name: Karaunda.
Habitat :Distributed all over warm regions of India and Sri Lanka.Grows wild and cultivated throughout Myanmar. It grows naturally in the Himalayas at elevations of 300 to 1800 meters, in the Siwalik Hills (part of India), and in Nepal and Afghanistan.
Description: 5m. Thorny evergreen shrub with 2-4cm long thorns, often forked.Leaves: Simple opposite, elliptic or obovate, shortly mucronate, glabrous, shining and coriaceous.Flower: 2cm across. In pubescent terminal corymbose cymes. They have jasmine-like fragrance.
• A large evergreen shrub; bark light grey, branchlets usually with thin stout sharp spines. Leaves opposite, simple; exstipulate; petioles short; laminae elliptic or broadly elliptic or obovate, the bases obtuse to rounded, the margins entire, the tyips acute, often shortly mucronate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, glaucous, coriaceous. Inflorescences in axillary corymbose cymes; bracts linear. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous 5-partite, the lobes lanceolate, pubescent. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, the lobes oblong lanceolate, puvbescent, the tube cylindrical, dilated at the throat, pubescent, white. Androecium polyandrous, apically appendaged, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1,ovary ellipsoid 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules 2 in each locules 2 in each locule, the style filiform the stigma minutely 2-fid. Fruit a drupe, ellipsoid, purplish black when ripe; seeds oblongoid, concave endosperm fleshy. Flowering and fruiting periods:
According to Ayurveda, Karaunda roots are stomachic, anthelmintic, antiscorbutic and useful in treatment of stomach disorders, scabies, pruritus, intestinal worms etc. The unripe fruit is sour, astringent, bitter, thermogenic, constipating, aphrodisiac, appetizer and antipyretic. It is useful in treatment of diarrhoea, anorexia and intermittent fevers. The ripe fruit is sweet, cooling, appetizer and anti-scrobutic. It is useful in treatment of anorexia, burning sensation, biliousness, skin diseases, scabies, pruritus etc.
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Root: — Pruritis; Gonorrhoea: Pyrexia; Indigestion; Chronic ulcer. Unripe fruit — Haematemesis; Appetizer; Mucolytic; To allay thirst. Ripe fruit — Carminative; Expectorant; Biliousness; Haematemesis; Antidote for poisons ; Appetizer; Easily digested
In Asia, the ripe fruits are utilized in curries, tarts, puddings and chutney.When only slightly underripe, they are made into jelly. Green, sour fruits are made into pickles in India.(Carissa carandus) plants, good use for Natural Fencing and get benefit of fruits from third year.
The karonda fruit is a rich source of iron and contains a fair amount of Vitamin C and, therefore, is very useful for cure of anaemia and has antiscorbutic (counteracting scurvy) properties. Mature fruit contains high amount of pectin and, therefore, besides being used for making pickle, it can be exploited for making jelly, jam, squash, syrup and chutney, which are of great demand in the international market.
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